There's a of jargon used in pre-roll production today - so we put together a glossary of terms to help guide you
One of the two dominant trimming machine styles. Batch-style trimmers have a specific amount of product put into the machine, and the machine runs the trimming process without any product entering or exiting the machine for a specific amount of time. It trims product in “batches”, hence the name. This is compared to a throughput-style trimmer, where product is continuously moved through the machine. Batch-style trimmers are currently only designed for trimming dry.
A blunt is a pre-roll cone filled with cannabis or hemp and is rolled with a tobacco leaf wrap. Read more about it in our blog post.
Broad-spectrum concentrates with the complete lineup of cannabinoids and terpenes (minus the THC).
Bubble hash, named for the way it bubbles when smoked, refers to a specific type of hash made with ice water.
Removing the cannabis flower from the stem of the plant. When wet trimming, the stem is cut off as close as possible to the flower. When dry trimming, about 12 to 16 inches of stem is left intact behind the flower to be used for hanging during the curing process.
Abbreviation: CBD. One of the many chemical compounds found in cannabis. It does not produce the “high” associated with cannabis. CBD is one of the compounds from the cannabis plant currently being used to treat a variety of illnesses, including epilepsy and multiple sclerosis. It is in pre-clinical trials and research for treatment of many other conditions. Both the THC and CBD content are listed on most cannabis products. Read more about it in our blog post.
A document showing the potency and purity of a cannabis product. Provided by a licensed analytical testing lab, the certificate of analysis (COA) lists cannabinoid levels and the testing of pesticides, mold, microbials, and other contaminants, ensuring a product has been tested according to state law and is safe for consumption.
The process of removing unwanted physical substances from an object or environment. Cannabis trimming machines are generally cleaned at least after every usage session, often much more frequently.
The top portion or flower cluster of a cannabis plant. The cola usually refers to the largest cluster of flowers, although some plants can have multiple colas. See also: ‘Flower’
Concentrates are any concentrated cannabis product made using solvent-based or solventless techniques.
A cone-shaped joint that is thin at the tip and starts straight. However, it becomes wider as you get to its base. A cannabis cone has a filter that prevents the marijuana from falling through the bottom. The filter also stops resin from clogging the end of the conical joint.
The presence of an unwanted constituent, contaminant or impurity in a substance or environment. When using cannabis trimming machines, contamination concerns can come from: mold; paint, oil or metal flaking off the machine into the product; cleaning agents; or even cross-contamination between strains.
An automated method for moving material from one processing stage to another. In a commercial harvesting environment, conveyors are often placed at the outfeed of a Bucker to bring material to a Trimmer, and in front of the Trimmer to enable consistent loading. They can also be placed at the outfeed side of a Trimmer to facilitate for quality control inspection.
Corrosion resistance refers to how well a substance, particularly a metal, can withstand damage caused by oxidation or other chemical reactions. Besides intrinsic corrosion resistance, a metal’s resistance to corrosion can be increased by applying different methods such as coating, painting and applying a corrosion inhibitor. There are no materials that are resistant to all corrosion in all environments.
Cotton cellulose is unique and clear like plastic cling wrap but comes from cotton. Read more about it in our blog post.
A crutch—also called a filter or a tip—is effectively a mouthpiece. It serves a number of purposes: It keeps the end of your joint open, blocks bits of plant matter from getting in your mouth, and ensures you don’t burn your lips as you puff your way down to the roach.
A person who plants, tends to, harvests, or improves (plants) by labour and skill.
Curing is an extended drying process that comes after the initial drying phase in cannabis harvesting. During curing, moisture is systematically and slowly removed in order to enhance a flower’s smell, flavor, and potency.
Delta-8 is a cannabis compound that has become popular because of its similarity to THC, the main compound in cannabis that gets you high, causing euphoria, happiness, sedation, symptom relief, and much more. THC’s scientific name is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, or delta-9 THC, or just delta-9. Delta-8 is short for delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol, or delta-8 THC. Delta-8 THC can cause effects similar to regular delta-9 THC—but they will be much less potent. Read more about it in our blog post.
A semi-isolated cannabinoid oil produced by a distillation process (typically concentrations between 85% and 95% of a single cannabinoid fall into the distillate category)
Miniature pre-rolled joints created with the idea that they could be smoked in the time it took to walk the dog. Read more about it in our blog post.
A harvesting process in which the flowers are dried before being trimmed, either by hand or by machine. See also: ‘Trim’.
The weight of the product after it has been trimmed and dried, measured in either kilograms or pounds.
The phenomenon that all compounds in the cannabis plant, including cannabinoids, terpenes, and more, work together synergistically to provide greater effects and health benefits than by themselves when consumed—the sum is greater than the whole of the parts.
Extracts are solvent-based concentrate products. Extracts are concentrates but not all concentrates are extracts.
Measures the weight of the raw materials being put into the machine, in either a wet or dry workflow.
A filter blocks bits of plant matter from getting in your mouth. See also: 'Crutch'
The flower of the cannabis plant, often also referred to as a bud. The most valuable part of the plant, and where the THC and CBD is concentrated.
The process of freezing cannabis immediately after harvest, usually with dry ice, to preserve trichomes for concentrate extraction. Fresh frozen cannabis usually produces high-quality concentrates such as live resins and live rosins, and saves cultivators time and labor by skipping the trimming, drying, and curing processes.
Full-spectrum concentrates, also known as whole-plant extracts, contain THC, CBD, other cannabinoids (found in lower concentrations) and every other active ingredient in the cannabis plant.
Abbreviation: GMP. A set of rules and procedures related to the handling, cleaning, quality assurance and packaging processes in manufacturing facilities and the products they make. Many countries, including Canada, the United States, the European Union and Australia, have legislated that food and pharmaceutical manufacturers follow GMP procedures to ensure that a food or drug product is safe for human consumption. Read more about it in our blog post.
A structure used to help grow cannabis outdoors, a greenhouse protects plants from the elements and helps regulate temperature and humidity. Greenhouses are environmentally friendly because they use natural sunlight and don’t use the heavy amount of resources that indoor growing does.
A harvesting process where the small leaves covering the flowers are removed by hand with scissors. Partly for aesthetic reasons, the trimmer can decide how much to remove and how ‘clean’ they want the bud to be. The trim (removed leaf material) can be used for extracts and oils. See also: ‘Trim’.
Cannabis products require testing for heavy metals, which are generally considered toxic and carcinogenic.
Hemp, or industrial hemp, is a variety of the Cannabis sativa plant species that is grown specifically for industrial use. It is the low tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) variety of the Cannabis Sativa plant. Under federal law, industrial hemp contains very small amounts of THC—indeed the plant must contain less than.3% THC by dry weight. Read more about it in our blog post.
Hemp wrap blunts have a thick, full-bodied, natural feel and come from pure hemp. It has a natural flavor and burns slower than rolling paper. Read more about it in our blog post.
A hybrid is any cannabis strain that results from the breeding of two other plants. Commonly, two different strains will be crossed to produce a new one, and the name will reflect it.
Cannabis plant extractions that use hydrocarbons such as butane, propane, and hexane to remove resin from the plant. Hydrocarbons are highly volatile and can be explosive, and are recommended to be used only by licensed, trained professionals.
Indicas are one of two types of cannabis plants, along with sativas. Indica plants originally grew in cold, northern climates, are short and dense, and have broad leaves. Indicas are also known to have a shorter growing time than sativas, and some turn purple in color.
Infused Pre-Rolls are cannabis pre-rolls with a twist. The cannabis flower is enhanced with CO2 Oil or Hash Oil, creating a powerful joint with higher levels of THC. There are some infused pre-rolls that infuse cannabis flower with CBD oil as an alternative for those seeking the extra medical benefits of CBD. Read more about it in our blog post.
Isolates contain a single cannabinoid (typically more than 97% and up to 99.99% single cannabinoid concentration).
A joint is a rolled cannabis cigarette. They rolled by hand using rolling papers or machine rolled using cones.
Kief refers to the trichomes of cannabis that may accumulate in containers or be sifted from loose, dry cannabis flower with a mesh screen or sieve. Kief contains a much higher concentration of psychoactive cannabinoids, such as THC, than that of the cannabis flowers from which it is derived. Read more about it in our blog post.
The output weight, in kilos or kilograms, generated in one hour. Note, this measure can be further specified as wet weight or dry weight.
The percentage of moisture contained within the cannabis flower. The term is usually used during the drying or curing phase. A cultivator will be routinely checking the moisture content of the flowers to determine if they are ready to move from drying to curing, or from curing to packaging.
The amount of water in cannabis flower. Moisture content is commonly used to determine when flower has finished drying after harvest, with 10-12% moisture content ideal.
A substance or material that is non-poisonous, benign and safe. In the context of cannabis trimming, it often refers to plastic materials or substances used for cleaning.
Non-reactive materials are substances that will not interact with, or breakdown when exposed to, another substance. For example, cast iron and copper are often used for cookware because of how evenly and effectively they conduct heat, but if used to cook with acidic ingredients (i.e. tomatoes or lemon juice), the food will pick up chemical elements from the reactive cookware. Non-reactive materials, such as stainless steel, do not react or interfere with the chemical structure of the input substance, (including cannabis).
A programmable logic controller is an industrial digital computer that has been ruggedized and adapted for the control of manufacturing processes, such as assembly lines, robotic devices, or any activity that requires high reliability, ease of programming, and in this case configuring the PRO's settings to produce different pre-roll recipes (weight, cone size, flower, etc).
Production as a Service/PaaS is a business relationship whereby equipment is provided without any investment by customers. Customers pay the equipment manufacturers on a per-use basis, essentially leasing equipment rather than purchasing it outright so that they are only paying for when they actually use the equipment rather than investing in equipment that spends a lot of time not in use. Read more about it in our blog post.
The output weight, in pounds, generated in one hour. Note, this measure can be further specified as wet weight or dry weight. I.E. “When trimming wet, the output weight is up to 200 pounds per hour. That equates to approximately 40 pounds per hour of dried material."
A pre-roll is simply a pre-rolled joint.
A cylinder-shaped container to keep dry herbs or pre-rolls fresh and secure also known as a joint tube. Read more about it in our blog post.
The unit output, in number of pre-rolls, generated in one hour.
A series of analyses and protocols to ensure a product maintains a standard of quality. In cannabis, these checks are done by a business internally, as well as externally by licensed testing facilities—all products in the legal market must be tested for potency, pesticides, microbials, and more.
High-quality ultra-thin papers derived from modern pulp bleaching techniques. Read more about it in our blog post.
Resin is the sticky byproduct of the cannabis plant produced in various areas but heavily concentrated in the trichomes on the cannabis flower. Cannabinoids (CBD & THC) and terpenes are contained in the resin. Read more about it in our blog post.
Rice paper comes from processed and pressed rice, all-natural ingredients. It’s smooth to touch, burns slowly, and absorbs humidity when left in the open air. Read more about it in our blog post.
Rosin is a cannabis extract made using heat and pressure—cannabis plant material is placed in a press with heated pads and then compressed, squeezing out hot oil.
A series of step-by-step instructions designed by a company or organization to explain complex operations in order to achieve efficient output and consistent performance by employees while ensuring methods adhere to standard industry regulations.
To make something clean and hygienic.
Sativa is one of two legacy taxonomic terms for cannabis, along with indica. Physically, sativas are usually tall, airy, narrow-leafed, and slow-growing. Typically, sativas evolved in hot, humid climates, with their lankiness and open bud structure allowing for more airflow to prevent mold.
U.S. Code Section 280e is the federal statute mandated by the IRS opposing "illegal" business. Said another way, Section 280e forbids businesses from deducting any expenses from their gross income when it involves "trafficking" schedule I and II controlled substances such as Marijuana. This includes taking any credits as well. Despite its recreational and medical legality across the states, in the eyes of federal law, all cannabis businesses fall into the category of drug trafficking. As a result, cannabis entrepreneurs are forced to pay taxes on almost all of their business income with the exception of COGS.
A computer program that documents and tracks cannabis from a plant form to a product on a dispensary shelf. Every legal cannabis state is required by law to have seed-to-sale tracking software, but states with only medical marijuana may or may not be required to have it.
Shake refers to small pieces of the cannabis flower that break off due to handling, oftentimes used in pre-rolls and edibles.
Solvent-based extraction techniques use a volatile chemical to dissolve the trichomes from the rest of the cannabis plant matter to produce and potent cannabis oil. After the separation process, the solvent is removed through a purging process, leaving behind a concentrated final product without the plant material.
Solventless extraction techniques do not use chemical solvents such as butane, alcohol, or CO2 but instead use a variety of agitation methods as well as machines that use low heat and pressure to break off or melt the cannabinoid trichomes from the cannabis material.
Cannabis plants grown outside, under the natural light of the sun, without a greenhouse or hoop house.
Tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, is one of many compounds found in the resin secreted by glands (trichomes) of the cannabis plant. It is the chemical responsible for the psychoactive effects of cannabis.
Short for tetrahydrocannabinolic acid, is a non-intoxicating compound produced by the cannabis plant. It is the precursor of THC that occurs in live cannabis plants: THCA converts into THC slowly over time or more immediately in the presence of heat, such as when you use a lighter to smoke.
A trimming process in which two machines are placed front-to-back to improve volume without increasing labor costs.
Terpenes are fragrant organic compounds that give cannabis its aromatic diversity. These oils are secreted from the flower’s trichomes (the same way that cannabinoids are secreted). Terpenes are not unique to cannabis; they can be found in many other plants, herbs, and fruits.
Terpenes are naturally-occurring compounds found in the trichomes of female cannabis plants.
A trimming machine in which the product is continuously moved through the machine, compared to a batch-style trimmer. This style of trimmer was developed in 1997 by Ryan Hall. Throughput-style trimmers can trim wet or dry and are the most common type of trimmer seen in commercial cannabis cultivation.
The trichomes on a cannabis plant are the tiny, bulbous glands that form on the leaves and buds, typically appearing around the flowering phase of plant growth. This is where the bulk of the THC and other cannabinoids are found.
The resinous glands on cannabis buds that contain the plant’s cannabinoids, terpenes, and other compounds. Strains with a heavy coating of trichomes typically have more cannabinoids and terpenes.
The trim can refer to the larger leaves which are removed from the stem of the plant before bucking, as well as the smaller, unwanted leaves around the bud which are removed to expose the flower. While not as valuable as the trimmed flower, trimmed leaf material is usually covered in trichomes and has value for use in edibles, oils, etc.
Trim quality usually refers to the closeness or shagginess of the trimmed flower and varies from machine to machine. A high trim quality typically indicates a very close trim on the flower, while a low trim quality indicates a shaggier, looser trim on the flower. Alternatively, the term ‘trim quality’ could be used to describe the condition of the plant material (leaves) that have been trimmed off the buds. If it has been sliced cleanly, as if by scissors, this would be a high trim quality. If it has been torn apart or smooshed this would be a low trim quality.
Once the top of the marijuana plant is removed (see: bucking), the small leaves around the bud need to be cut away to expose the flower. If using a commercial trimming machine, the buds are processed through a tumbler where blades cut the small leaves from the buds and this trim is filtered into a bucket using a separator system. Most commercial trimmers use hoses to suck the newly-cut trim into an external bucket.
In a throughput-style trimmer, the tumbler is the cylindrical shaped tube that the flowers pass through to get trimmed.
Describes how quickly a tumbler in a commercial cannabis trimming machine rotates.
References the method used to close pre-rolls to prevent the compacted cannabis from spilling out and providing paper for the user to spark the pre-roll.
Unrefined brown paper has a dark semi-transparent look, natural feel, and doesn't use any chemical treatments altering its appearance and burn rate. Read more about it in our blog post.
The amount of product a trimming machine can trim in a specified period of time. Usually measured in pounds per hour or kilos per hour. Note: Volume measurements vary greatly based on whether wet weight measurements or dry weight measurements are used.
A weigh station is a checkpoint that measures the weight of the cannabis used in producing a pre-roll.
A trimming process in which the flowers are trimmed immediately after being harvested from the live plant, then dried after being trimmed.
The weight of the product after it has been trimmed but before it has been dried, (in a wet trimming process).
The amount of cannabis a grower gets post harvest.
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